From 1979 to 2000, the sea ice edge at the end of summer generally fell somewhere in the vicinity of Wrangel Island, but this is not the first summer when the sea ice edge has retreated well north of the island.
The rocks that make up Wrangel Island were deposited between the late Precambrian (before multicellular organisms began leaving fossils in the rock record) and the early Mesozoic Era (the age of the dinosaurs).
Skies were clear over the island in August 18, 2008, giving the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite a chance to capture this image.
Although it looks like bare rock, this mountainous island supports diminutive Arctic tundra plants.
As of 2003, there were four rangers who reside on the island year-round.
In addition a core of about 12 scientists conduct research during the summer months.
We used an improved chemical procedure to obtain and purify collagen from bone.
Benzene synthesized from the samples was measured using a liquid scintillation counter.
It consists of a southern coastal plain that is as wide as 15 km (9.3 mi); a central belt of low-relief mountains; and a northern coastal plain that is as wide as 25 km (16 mi).
Total organic carbon and/or dinosaur bone bio-apatite was then extracted and pretreated to remove potential contaminants and concordant radiocarbon dates were obtained, all of which were similar to radiocarbon dates for megafauna. Walter Libby's team of collagen from "dense mid-shaft femur bones" of twelve extinct saber tooth tigers, [Smilodon] from the Le Brea Tar Pits of Los Angeles CA.
Key Words: Radiocarbon dating, dinosaur, bone collagen, organic carbon, bone bio-apatite, fossil wood, amber, megafauna Introduction Bone collagen and soft tissue were recently reported as having been discovered in a Tyrannosaurus dinosaur femur bone as well as other fossil bones from the Cretaceous period of the geologic column by Mary H. The RC ages for extracted bone collagen for Smilodon femurs ranged from 12,650 ±160 to 28,000 ±1400 RC years BP (Before the Present). Libby, the inventor of the radiocarbon dating method, "There is no known natural mechanism by which collagen may be altered to yield a false age." It is common practice to determine the age of bones by radiocarbon (RC) dating of extracted bone collagen but not of dinosaurs because they are assumed to have become extinct 65 million years BP and, therefore, too old for RC dating.
The validity of our data has been confirmed by the results of our measurements on two international control sample series (IAEA and TIRI) and by parallel measurements of Wrangel Island mammoth remains at other laboratories.
Part of the Russian Federation, Wrangel Island rests above the Arctic Circle between the Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, northeast of Siberia.